1 rad/sec in steady state for an input voltage of 1 Volt (this is demonstrated in the DC Motor Speed: System Analysis page where the system's open-loop response is simulated). theory of the hysteresis motor frame pictures general electrical characteristics physical specifications single speed motors, single phase 60 cycles, two phase 60 cycles three phase 60 cycles, single phase odd frequencies two phase variable frequency. family of electric rotating machines. Motors with 100 volts, or higher ratings, are used in appliances, automation and in industrial applications. First, all the armature current must be transferred by the brush, making the. Electric power consumption is rated power divided by motor efficiency. Lecture 2 – Basic Electric Motor & Generator – Operational Theory Lecture 3 – Three Phase Power Converter – Control Strategies for Three Machine Types Lecture 4 – Practical Design Process for Electrical Machines. The brushless DC motor driver circuit described here uses a DRV10866 driver IC to drive a small BLDC fan, without using any position sensors. Motor Start Theory A motor's start performance can be identified by examining the motor data sheet. For example, the control of a rotary inverted pendulum requires a DC motor to drive the arm and the pendulum as shown in Figure 2-1. Craig 4 – In rotational electromechanical devices other than dc machines, torque is produced as a result of one or more magnetic fields which rotate about the air gap of the device. Speed control of DC shunt motor. Semiconductors LPC2101 microcontroller for bi-directional brushed DC motor O PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Like a unipolar motor, bipolar motors can be single stepped with two different control. If a motor is too small for an application it may not have sufficient torque to start the load and run it up to the correct speed. 1 Section 2. Brushes are notorious for wearing out over time making DC motors unreliable in constant duty applications. 1 Motor Model 1. VSS pin is used to provide logic voltage to L293D. Dudley – Google Books Part 3 is devoted to an bonfigliooi treatment of gears and the gearbox, ranging from sophisticated theory to the practical development of toothed gear wheels, shafts, housings, bearings, and so on. The DC motor isn't loaded with an object. The Control Structure for DC Motor based on the Flatness Control Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems 8(4):1814 · December 2017 with 2,001 Reads. Other members of the family are the direct-current (dc) motor or generator, the induction motor or generator, and a number of derivatives of all these three. 5 A (no load) Now, I'm trying to find the right motor driver and I have to calculate continuous current of motor, but I'm not sure how to do it. Let us first understand how it generates variable DC. *others have made similar motors and said that the wire gets pretty warm pretty fast (within seconds). DC Motors: Principle of Operation. It works on the principle of Lorentz force by which the current carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force hence the conductor moves on the direction of force called. DC Motor Principle A machine that converts dc power into mechanical energy is known as dc motor. The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to flux in field winding. 6 Force and Motion Before. To reverse a DC motor you need both halves of an H-bridge. Overview The AC/DC Motor Theory course was specifically developed for electricians and electronic technicians as well as for the multi-craft training needs of process and manufacturing facilities. DC motors are the most widely used type of motor with initial costs typically less than AC systems for low-power units. In the DC motor, the current through the coils is reversed (or commutated) by a pair of brushes usually graphite) which make contact with conducting commutator points of the rotor, Figure 4 ; as the rotor turns, the brushes reverse the flow of current and thus reverse the magnetic. With more than 50 years of experience in variable speed drive business, Driveswarehouse stocks a large selection of AC Drives , DC Drives , Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) , Variable Speed Drives, Adjustable Speed Drives, Adjustable Frequency Drives, Combo (AC Motor and Drive Combination and DC Motor and Drive Combination) in a wide range of. An Introduction to Stepper Motors Xinda Hu University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences Introduction: A stepper motor is an electric motor that rotates in discrete step increments. Stopping the Synchronous Motor • Synchronous motors with their loads have large inertia – may take several hours to stop after power has been disconnected from the power line – to stop faster, electrical or mechanical braking can be applied • maintain full dc excitation on rotor and short the 3-phase armature windings (stator windings), or. They also drive many other types of. Introduction to DC Motors 6 C. Brushless DC motor driver circuit. The rpm sensor. Permanent magnet DC motors are constructed out of a number of components. Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier) and sine wave (modulating) are compared to obtain PWM waveform. This article describes the construction of DC motor. and it depends on the value of armature resistance (R a), too. Torque: 50gm-cm 4. PWM and DC motor control theory Controlling DC Motors with the L298N H Bridge and. Review of DC Motor Theory DC motor construction: Dc motor is mainly constructed from two main parts, the stator and the rotor as shown in Fig. For DC motors, the loss-of-field can potentially cause a dangerous, over-speed condition (Ref. Hence, loss-of-field relays are used to monitor the motor’s field. 2 Theory Brushed DC motors, despite their mechanical complexity, are governed by only a few forces. For the cumulative compound machine shown. To switch the direction of curent, brushed DC motors use brushes and commutators. It is outer cover of dc motor also called as frame. Physics 1051 Laboratory #9 Simple DC Motor Introduction The right hand rule may be applied to each segment of a loop to determine the force on each segment. Frequent Board resetting will result. The control approach is model based using a nonlinear mathematical model of a series connected DC motor. Watson's theory of behavior explains all human actions as responses to stimuli. The yoke of a dc motor forms an integral part of the stator or the static part of the motor. Servo Motors and Industrial Control Theory is the only text focused on the fundamentals of servo motors and control theory. MOTOR Specification TFK-280SA-22125 MOTOR Pressure Angle 20° Number Of TEETH PITCH Outside Diameter 0. permanent magnet DC motor's design uses these forces to create a torque on the motor's rotor, which is constrained by the motor's bearings so that the only motion permitted is rotation (see Figure 19. 1 Section 3. Levent ÇETİN Stator The stator is the stationary part of the motor’s electromagnetic circuit. Two additional states ban texting while driving for new drivers. This is useful for many large appliances like dishwashers, refrigerators, and so on, which run on AC. The equation of the torque is given as shown below. • The load angle is almost constant and it is about 90°allowing the maximum efficiency. Torque ~ Speed 5. The direction of rotation can be explained with help of Fleming's left hand principle. BLDC Motor with Hall Sensors and Speed Closed Loop, Driven by eTPU on MPC5554, Rev. dI dt increases and hence increasesV L B. The gear-reduction starter motor contains the components shown. What happens to the voltage as the shaft is. ) Direct Current (DC) Motors: Direct current motors were the first kind of electric motor. 5 kW DC motor Fig 3. The speed of a dc motor can be varied by varying the field current. Graphical methods for classical control theory have been augmented with worked examples using MatLab and Mathcad to reflect the reality of the way engineers solve control problems in the field today. The speed of DC motor can be control by usingSCRin AC circuit as shown in the below figure. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6. Load test on three phase induction motor. Connect the DC-generator as shown in figure 1. current flows through the motor. Means in actual DC generator we rotate the armature with the help of prime mover but here in the DC motor armature rotates due to motor action. Kirtley Jr. Retardation test on dc shunt motor. DC motors have inductors (electromagnet) within them that create a magnetic field that aids the rotation of the motor. For example, the control of a rotary inverted pendulum requires a DC motor to drive the arm and the pendulum as shown in Figure 2-1. Other motor technologies (induction, DC, servo and step motors) either need gear reducers, or electronic drives to match the speed of Superior Electric synchronous motors. All DC motors are single phase. The system structure of a DC motor is depicted in Figure2-2, including the. DC Servo Motors | Theory of DC Servo Motor May 15, 2018 February 24, 2012 by Electrical4U As we know that any electrical motor can be utilized as servo motor if it is controlled by servomechanism. Therefore, it has been difficult to apply linear control theory to brushless DC motor systems. DC motors appear in a large variety of shapes and sizes: permanent magnet iron core, permanent magnet ironless rotor, permanent magnet brushless, wound field series connected, wound field shunt connected, wound field compound connected, variable reluctance stepper, permanent magnet stepper, and hybrid stepper motors. A DC Motor. Here the simple DC motor speed control PWM circuit is constructed by using IC 555 and motor driver IC L293D. Series Motor Example. Basic motor parameters • the “Safe Continuous Operating Area” SCOA – the motor can safely be operated continuously anywhere in this region • the “Safe Intermittent Operating Area” SIOA – the motor may be operated in this region for short periods of time (typically < 1 min). tmp Author: Unknown Created Date: 10/14/1997 11:16:11 AM. Relationship between the no-load speed and the. In either case, it is classified as a permanent magnet inductor motor. Among the three types of DC motors, such as series, shunt and separately excited DC motors. The motor’s own inductance acts like a filter, storing. Rerun the file and you should get the plot like this:. 5 C 1475 191 570. Universal Motors are generic AC motors that are operated on both alternate current and direct current sources. SparatelyExcited motor: The rotor and stator are each connected from a different power supply, this gives another degree of freedom for controlling the motor over the shunt. Since all motors are not necessarily fully loaded, it is recom-mended that the actual current draw of the motor be used instead of the nameplate rating. Examples of DC motor are: Fans, household appliances, blowers and pumps and so on. Hybrid: small step length, high torque, position preserved during power failure 2. DC Motors Designed for Your Application DC Motor Applications TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company DC motors are ideally suited to a multitude of industrial and marine applications in which high torque and variable speed are required. Brushed DC (BDC) motors are inexpensive, easy to drive, and are readily available in all sizes and shapes. Number of motor control As many as possible 3. The motor receives a direct current from a separate source or a DC generator connected to the AC motor shaft. In armature controlled DC motor the desired speed is obtained by varying the armature voltage. 15 service factor can handle an 11. Unless specifically marked with a + or -, DC motors have no polarity, meaning that you can …. When a DC voltage is connected across an inductor, a current is made to flow through the inductor. Load test on three phase induction motor. It directly provides rotary motion and, coupled with wheels or drums and cables, can provide translational motion. Separately Excited DC Motor losses: In general, the dc motor losses are divided into the followings [12]: 1-Armuture losses: losses by the active resistance of the armature winding equal to (I R a) 2 a. This variable DC voltage is fed to the motor. The PMDC motor I. 31,Part (A), No. This is also well known that the DC machines can be used as a generator as well as as a motor, their is the difference of operation in both case i. 1) e = d λ dt m v i L R Fig. Fundamentals of Servo Motion Control The fundamental concepts of servo motion control have not changed significantly in the last 50 years. Along the same lines, the simple design of DC motors makes service, maintenance and control well understood and easily supportable. This completes our introduction to the L298N dual full bridge driver. Find out how to make a simple electric motor. Thank you for downloading Introduction to Stepper Motors. Voltage can be applied to the terminals of the DC motor or external resistance can be applied in the armature. Consequently their transient and steady state current ratings are same. Equivalent Circuit 28 8. Then wire the circuit as shown above. Objective: to study the torque vs. This articles features schematics and photos of circuits for making PWM without a microcontroller, but instead uses a 74AC14 logic inverter chip, diodes, a capacitor, and potentiometer. Let's move on to induction motor drives. Motors - options DC Motor Pros: fast, naturally continuous, robust. A Simple DC Motor. The two magnetic forces) * and –)* produce a torque on the loop, tending to rotate it about its central axis. The gear-reduction starter motor contains the components shown. INTRODUCTION TO UNIT 1—ELECTRICIAN’S MATH AND BASIC ELECTRICAL FORMULAS. * Fixed stroke on M7284C1083, M7284C1091, M7284Q1082, and M7284Q1090. Module 6 - DC Motors This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control, applications, and load characteristics. Brushless DC Motor Control with Hall Sensors Using Infineon XC866 Microcontroller Application Note 3 V1. 2 BASICS OF MOTORS AND MOTOR CONTROL We'll step through each of these topics in detail: Section Title Page Number • Motor Theory 4 • Magnetic Fields 4 • Current Flow 4 • Induced Motion 5 • Commutator 8 • DC Motors 9 • Simple DC Motor 9 • Practical DC Motor 10 • Electromagnets 11 • Motor Components 12 • Reversing a DC Motor 12 • DC Motor Types 13. In some DC motors, permanent magnets are used in rotors and these types are called as Brushless DC Motors Alternate Current Machines 8 (BLDCM). With some products, Velocity mode operation can include capacity for regeneration. 10, 2013 Pulse Width Modulation for DC Motor Control Based on LM324 1884 control. ICs like 555 timer, ATmega16 Microcontroller, 74 series ICs cannot supply this amount of current. What does this phenomenon indicate about the longevity of DC motors, and their suitability in certain environments? file. 8; As of March 2019, 16 states and the District of Columbia had banned drivers from hand-held phone use. Hybrid: small step length, high torque, position preserved during power failure 2. An AC induction motor with a VFD is the popular choice today. Trickey unveiled what they called "a DC motor with solid state commutation. The rotor of a servo motor is designed longer in length and smaller in diameter so that it has low inertia. 1 Motor Model 1. Build a simple DC motor. 4 L-C parallel a. By increasing or decreasing pulse width, the controller regulates energy flow to the motor shaft. PI speed controller design 17 2. Brushless dc motor background 7 2. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines, wind turbines and even hand cranks. A Guide to Electric Drives and DC Motor Control An electric drive is an electromechanical system that employs an electric motor as the prime mover instead of a diesel engine, steam or gas turbines, hydraulics, etc. The board is designed to connect DC power sources feeding current to the motor. Training package TP 1421 deals with the subject of Basic Principles of Servo Motor Drive Technology. Properties of ferromagnetic materials D. DC motors are transducers because they convert electrical power (P in) into mechanical power (P out). An axial-°ux permanent-magnet brushless DC motor [14] was optimized by carrying out flnite element analysis and genetic algorithm. This refers to the question as to whether or not the motor has in built positional sensors which are required to operate the motor with a sensored brushless DC motor controller or whether the motor has been built without these and is therefore requiring of a sensorless brushless DC. The system structure of a DC motor is depicted in Figure2-2, including the. Their basic construction, operating principles, and control and oper-. 2 Basic construction The AC induction motor comprises 2 electromagnetic parts: • Stationary part called the stator • Rotating part called the rotor, supported at each end on bearings. The basic design includes Class F Insulation, 1. Here is a photo of a kit we put together. State the term that applies to voltage variation from no-load to full-load conditions and how it is expressed as a percentage. Rated voltage is to be provided. the motor is a brushed dc. pdf), Text File (. Target Motor Theory 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control with Hall Sensors, Rev. There is no difference in the construction of DC Motor and Generator. Journal, Vol. 10, 2013 Pulse Width Modulation for DC Motor Control Based on LM324 1884 control. They were commercially unsuccessful, because these motors were battry powered and batteries were still very expensive and the quality was low. DC motor starters allow a DC motor or motor-controlled device to be turned on or off. Department of Energy, motor driven equipment accounts for 64% of the electricity consumed by U. Here is a motor speed sensor module, the major goal is to check the rate of an electric motor. [1] p80 Fig. The torque variation capability can be achieved by means of changing movable stators positions. Reactance voltage and commutation. Permanent magnet DC motors are constructed out of a number of components. The primary issue is that DC motors require a large, potentially damaging starting current which must be limited by the starter itself. A direct current (DC) motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which causes it to turn. Speed Control of DC Motors: the speed of a motor is given by the relation ðf ðf a a K V IaRa p A Z V I R N ð-ð÷ð÷ð= ðł ðö ðçðç ðŁ ð-ðæ ð= 60 where R a= armature circuit resistance. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6. HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism : R Nave: Go Back: Current in DC Motor This is an active graphic. As resistance increased, the value of the field current will reduce. DC machines 1 DC machines Transformsmechanicalenergyintoelectric energywithDC voltage and current(DC generatoror dynamo), or conversely(DC motor). DC drives namely field control, armature voltage control and armature resistance control methods [2]. revitalized the versatile DC motor. The speed is directly proportional to the voltage that is applied to the phases (e. Same voltage is applied to both shunt winding and armature in this motor. DC Machines. 1) e = d λ dt m v i L R Fig. Volume 3 of 4 Module 7 - Basic AC Theory. Torque: 50gm-cm 4. Ohm’s Law and DC Circuits Purpose: Students will become familiar with DC potentiometers circuits and Ohm’s Law. While DC motors are applied mostly in special applications, knowing how to properly connect them is important to their required performance. Among these, brushless DC motors (BLDC) feature high efficiency and excellent controllability, and are widely used in many applications. DC Motor Operation This is an active graphic. No load and Blocked rotor test on three phase induction motor to draw (i) equivalent circuit and (ii) circle diagram. Please keep a written record of all communications. We know that a DC motor has an armature which rotates within a magnetic field, and the main working principle of this motor depends on a current carrying conductor which is arranged in a magnetic field, and the mechanical force will be experienced with the conductor. Motors with 100 volts, or higher ratings, are used in appliances, automation and in industrial applications. All about Motors 88 Motor protection Selection aids The Eaton selector slide enables you to determine quickly and reliably which motor starter is the most suitable for the application concerned. DC Motor Introduction, Principle and Working Introduction: DC motors are rarely utilized in normal applications as a result of all electrical supply firms furnish electrical energy but, for special applications like in steel mills, mines and electric traction, it's advantageous to convert AC into DC so as to use DC motors. The direction of current flow through the conductor is indicated with an "x" or a ". SAX From a circuit designer’s point of view stepper mo-tors can be divided into two basic types : unipolar and bipolar. S-Domain Block Diagram of Separately Excited DC Motor A. Shunt DC Motor 3. Find the phase of the motor, (this will dictate which table you will go to for the FLC. The speed is directly proportional to the voltage that is applied to the phases (e. The type of motor is not critical to a servomotor and different types may be used. This application note will discuss how a BDC motor works, how to drive a BDC motor, and how a drive. Industrial grade motors usually are rated for continuous duty. Brushed DC (BDC) motors are inexpensive, easy to drive, and are readily available in all sizes and shapes. AC motors can be single-phase or three phases. The maximum duty cycle can be 100%, which is equivalent to a DC waveform. 1 Advent of Brushless DC Motors Once the Electronic Regulator Company maximized the efficiency of the brush DC motor, the door was opened for an even more efficient motor device. Compound DC motors have good starting torque but may experience control problems in variable speed drive applications. Free online Electrical Practice Tests : DC Series Motor ) Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Small industrial servomotors are typically electronically commutated brushless motors. DC machines 1 DC machines Transformsmechanicalenergyintoelectric energywithDC voltage and current(DC generatoror dynamo), or conversely(DC motor). Direct Current (DC). What does this phenomenon indicate about the longevity of DC motors, and their suitability in certain environments? file. The system structure of a DC motor is depicted in Figure2-2, including the. The basic reasons for using servo systems in contrast to open loop systems include the need to improve transient response times, reduce the steady state errors and reduce the sensitivity to load parameters. The following two paragraphs will help you identify the right type of servo motor for your project/system. 1 Motor Model 1. The basic theory of electricity is simple and easily understood if you are just a little patient and curious. 8 Further problems on single-phase parallel a. Speed Control of DC Motor Using PWM A DC motor is an electro-mechanical device that converts direct current into mechanical energy by means of rotation of a shaft. So, by varying the above three parameters, we can control the speed of a DC motor. online store of Polyspede Electronics Corporation. tmp Author: Unknown Created Date: 10/14/1997 11:16:11 AM. The traditional technologies like DC motor and AC motor cannot meet these demands. NEC Theory and Practice Tests. WinDinG 10 -table 20standard - 30 - 40 - 50 - faCtory oPtions For custom } unit types. Price $374. According Roller et al (2012) in Contemporary Issues and Theories of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Neuroplasticity, the production and control of human movement is a process that varies from a simple reflex loop to a complex network of neural patterns that communicate throughout the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). - Do not use 3V to 4. Principle of operation of DC Motor: When current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it. When a DC voltage is connected across an inductor, a current is made to flow through the inductor. In a Brush DC motor, the rotor has the windings and the stator is either made of permanent magnets (in a brush DC permanent magnet motor) or an electromagnet (in a wound field brush DC motor). be zero (this is the case of a DC motor), with reference to the quantity of charge dq found in an in nitesimal section d~‘ of the wire, the force in equation (5) may be computed as a function of i:. See spec sheet. DC servo motors can also be either brushed or brushless. Module 5 - DC Generators This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics. The pin hole for locking the rotor is at the flange near the DC machine in the center. List the types of armatures used in dc generators. The stationary part is also called the stator. The first DC motor was developed around the 1830's-1840s. STORAGE CONDITIONS - SHORT TERM The following storage requirements must be followed: 1. Though they are considered as a low-maintenance. DC MOTOR/GENERATOR THEORY Knowledge Requirements 3. The most obvious difference is the type of current each motor turns into energy, alternating current in the case of AC motors, and direct current in the case of DC motors. Compound motor. Overview The AC/DC Motor Theory course was specifically developed for electricians and electronic technicians as well as for the multi-craft training needs of process and manufacturing facilities. In some DC motors, permanent magnets are used in rotors and these types are called as Brushless DC Motors Alternate Current Machines 8 (BLDCM). The speed of a DC motor is inversely proportional to its field flux (φ). This speed control system is an electro-mechanical control system. motors that are included are 1-phase induction motors, permanent synchronous motors and synchronous reluctance motors. All about Motors 88 Motor protection Selection aids The Eaton selector slide enables you to determine quickly and reliably which motor starter is the most suitable for the application concerned. + − i + − m Ω Q υ m R υ i Figure 1: Equivalent circuit for a DC electric motor. But for the applications that require them, stepper motors can solve a lot of problems with a minimum of fuss. Brake test in one of the most simple way of finding efficiency of any kind of dc machine. This category of motors includes two types of synchronous motors, namely synchronous reluctance motors and permanent magnet. In many different applications it is required to control speed of DC motor. Thursday Week 7: Servo Motors 23 Theory and Practice of Tangible User Interfaces Homework Post descriptions and photo(s) of your crawler on the course website. Instead of coils wound around a stack of iron laminations, the coil is formed as a thin hollow cylinder (item 1 above). AC Motors AC MOTOR THEORY. Torque: 50gm-cm 4. Click on bold type for further illustration. What does this phenomenon indicate about the longevity of DC motors, and their suitability in certain environments? file. Self and mutual inductances E. For example, the control of a rotary inverted pendulum requires a DC motor to drive the arm and the pendulum as shown in Figure 2-1. 27 26F 95 96 56 95 48 94 86 94 48 55. Compared to brushed DC motors, BLDC motors have various advantages, such as having easier speed control, which therefore allows better optimization of fan speed, efficiency, and acoustic performance. Principles of Operation. This is unlike the power that comes out of our walls which is AC, or alternating current (imagine water sloshing back and forth instead of a stream flowing). Separately Excited DC Servo Motor DC Servo Motor Theory. The speed and CEMF will continue to increase until the armature current and torque are reduced to values just large enough to supply the load at a new constant speed. Series wound Dc motor as we said before that this type of dc motor is a self-excited Dc motor which converts electrical power into mechanical power based on electromechanical law, but in this motor, the field winding is connected in series to the armature winding. The basic working principle of a DC motor is: "whenever a current. 8; As of March 2019, 16 states and the District of Columbia had banned drivers from hand-held phone use. If a small perturbation around a DC operating point is introduced, these equations can be written as (7)-(9). The PMDC motor I. Dudley – Google Books Part 3 is devoted to an bonfigliooi treatment of gears and the gearbox, ranging from sophisticated theory to the practical development of toothed gear wheels, shafts, housings, bearings, and so on. 8 Further problems on single-phase parallel a. BLDC motors use electronic commutation versus mechanical commutation in brush-type DC motors to control the power distribution to the motor. DC Motor Model. The working of DC motor is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force. The brushless DC motor driver circuit described here uses a DRV10866 driver IC to drive a small BLDC fan, without using any position sensors. txt) or read online for free. A typical example might look like this: Functional Requirement: DC Gear head motor capable of accelerating a 15lb, two-wheel drive. AC motors are widely used to drive machinery for a wide variety of applications. someone unhooked it from the power supply for storage and now i need it again. At its most simple, it requires two magnets of opposite polarity and an electric coil, which acts as an electromagnet. Introduction to Stepper Motors Slide 1 Introduction to Stepper Motors Part 1: Types of Stepper Motors Hello, my name is Marc McComb, I am a Technical Training Engineer here at Microchip Technology in the Security, Microcontroller and Technology Division. Retardation test on dc shunt motor. The Electronic Devices and Circuits Notes Pdf – EDC Pdf Notes book starts with the topics covering Qualitative Theory of p-n Junction, the p-n junction as a rectifier, the junction transitor, the DC and AC load lines, determination of h-parameters from transistor characteristics, The Junction field effect transistor (construction, principle. family of electric rotating machines. Voltage values given in these examples are used for explanation only. Share on Tumblr The DC Motor used in many applications, and some applications requires speed control of DC motor some times it requires rotation direction control. DC motor Speci cations: 1. Kollmorgen’s family of brush DC motors offers an extremely wide variety of sizes and package types. industries. Motor 1624E009S is used as an example. If you want to rotate and object at some specific angles or distance, then you use servo motor. Module 5 - DC Generators This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics. Mentesana, Project Leader I Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Between the 4 types of DC motors, the potential applications are numerous. The DC Shunt-wound motor, running on Direct current, has its field windings placed in parallel to the armature. Frequency Inverter Basic Theory Applying a frequency inverter to a specific application is no mystery when you understand the requirements of the load. learnabout-electronics. A 10 hp motor could run at 11. Compound motor. Brushless DC Motor Electromagnetic Torque Estimation with Single-Phase Current Sensing 744 where TL - load torque [Nm] J - inertia of the rotor and coupled shaft [kgm2] β- friction factor [Nm. Click on bold type for further illustration. Visual inspec-tion and electrical testing of the armature and fields give the maintenance personnel an under-standing of the condition of the motor. Explain the causes of armature losses. It is just made up of simple motor which run through servo mechanism. Many DC motors use brushes which require maintenance, so keep that in mind or spend a little more money for brushless DC motors, or switch to AC motors and drives. Electric power consumption is rated power divided by motor efficiency. This lesson introduces the learner to DC Motors and their basic components. 061 Introduction to Power Systems Class Notes Chapter 12 Permanent Magnet “Brushless DC” Motors ∗ J. 7 Power factor improvement 16. Types of Servo Motors There are two types of servo motors - AC and DC. Load test on three phase induction motor. 3 where a sliding bar rests on a simple circuit consisting of two rails. Magnetic interactions with charge: Index Magnetic field concepts Magnetic force applications. By increasing or decreasing pulse width, the controller regulates energy flow to the motor shaft. The basic diagram (view A) shows a circle with two leads labeled T1 and T2. Go back to your m-file and change Ki to 200. They were commercially unsuccessful, because these motors were battry powered and batteries were still very expensive and the quality was low. Definition and development of servo technology Drive Engineering – Practical Implementation – Servo Technology 7 1. Some of the benefits are better speed versus torque Fuzzy logic can be considered as a mathematical theory combining multi-valued logic, probability theory, and artificial intelligence to. Transformer is a non-rotational device and motor is a rotational machine. The method first prevents flow of current through the motor while slowly charging a parallel capacitor. A servo motor is basically a DC motor(in some special cases it is AC motor) along with some other special purpose components that make a DC motor a servo. Typical Motor Data Motor Speed FLC LRC LRT % FL Torque (rpm) (amps) (%FLC) (%FLT) Ef'ncy @3xFLC A 1470 191 600 263 93 65. In DC motor control over a large speed range, both below and above the rated speed can be achieved quite easily. Analogue comparator may be used. A 10 hp motor could run at 11. This setup is manufactured by TECHNO INSTRU-. A method for reducing motor start-up current in an electric motor control system. A working knowledge of different types of DC motors, and how DC motors are controlled, is very important to an industrial electrician or electronic technician. Single phase full wave converter drive. Typical Motor Data Motor Speed FLC LRC LRT % FL Torque (rpm) (amps) (%FLC) (%FLT) Ef’ncy @3xFLC A 1470 191 600 263 93 65. DC motors are used on cranes, elevators, conveyors, and on various process and batch control manufacturing equipment. Module 6 - DC Motors This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control, applications, and load characteristics. 27 26F 95 96 56 95 48 94 86 94 48 55. [1] p80 Fig. The first DC motor was developed around the 1830’s-1840s. ) Direct Current (DC) Motors: Direct current motors were the first kind of electric motor. Price $374. February 5, 2015 by Tarun Agarwal Leave a Comment. file 00742 8. The below figure shows the parts that consisting in RC servo motors in which small DC motor is employed for driving the loads at precise speed and position. Choose from 500 different sets of dc theory flashcards on Quizlet. motor, power factor correction capacitors should not exceed the motor manufacturer’s recommendations. The Control Structure for DC Motor based on the Flatness Control Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems 8(4):1814 · December 2017 with 2,001 Reads. This TIDA-01362 design achieves all of these requirements by driving a three-phase stepper motor using Texas Instruments DRV8313 brushless DC (BLDC) motor driver. Question 3 The concept of the rotating magnetic field is central to AC motor theory, so it is imperative that students grasp this concept before moving on to more advanced concepts. This is why it is called no load. A: Like the AC motor, the DC motor has a very long history. motors are used in automotive, robotics, small arm movements and so on. Therefore, it’s worthwhile for electrical professionals to take a look at their inner workings and, when the time comes, be prepared to service DC motors. Direct Current (DC) Electric Circuits. Speed ~ Armature current 2. Frequency Inverter Basic Theory Applying a frequency inverter to a specific application is no mystery when you understand the requirements of the load. If a small perturbation around a DC operating point is introduced, these equations can be written as (7)-(9). motor in various circumstances can be derived from physical laws and characteristics of the motors themselves. Module 6 - DC Motors This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control, applications, and load characteristics. Here is a motor speed sensor module, the major goal is to check the rate of an electric motor. BLDC Motor with Hall Sensors and Speed Closed Loop, Driven by eTPU on MPC5554, Rev. PI speed control of the BLDC motor 17 3. The theory used in the work was collected by studying literature on how electrical motors work, and by simplifying the explanations to suit the intended reader. To sound bona fide, I might as well give you the official job description of the gen-erator. Compound DC Motors. Explain the effect of motor reaction in a dc generator. A downside is a hot motor with a shorter expected life. DC Motor: motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. The broadest distinction between brushless DC motors is whether or not the motors are sensored or sensorless. The Inverter technology (DC) is the latest evolution of technology concerning the electro motors of the compressors. Half an H-bridge will connect an output pin to either Vcc or Ground or disconnect it. Linear systems theory )the superposition principle holds ) the response of to V and T. One end of the rope is fixed to the floor via a spring balance S and a known mass is suspended at the other end. The self-excited DC motors can also be categorized into a shunt motor, series motor, and compound motor depending on the ways in which the two windings are connected to the DC power supply. It simply chops fixed DC and generates variable DC. towards making them behave like dc motors through innovative design and control techniques. From the torque equation of dc motor we know T g = K a φ I a So the torque in this case can be varied by varying field flux φ, independent of the armature current I a. Introduction Motors are the fundamental driving force of the modern world. Examples of DC motor are: Fans, household appliances, blowers and pumps and so on. As resistance increased, the value of the field current will reduce. Alternating current motors or AC motors are built on the principle that Nikola Tesla discovered in the late 19th century. They were commercially unsuccessful, because these motors were battry powered and batteries were still very expensive and the quality was low. Motor Control: closed loop • A way of getting a robot to achieve and maintain a goal state by constantly comparing current state with goal state. HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism : R Nave: Go Back: Current in DC Motor This is an active graphic. The quotient of both terms equates to the efficiency of the motor. Other members of the family are the direct-current (dc) motor or generator, the induction motor or generator, and a number of derivatives of all these three. The pin hole for locking the rotor is at the flange near the DC machine in the center. , transformers, rotors and stators of motors), the ferromagnetic material should have a small residual flux density and coercive magnetizing field intensity). The separately excited DC motors are most often used. limited capacity of DC cab prevents high currents in a short circuit. All materials are made up from atoms, and all atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. Krishnan – Electronic Control of Machines develops a systematic approach to motor drives. The most common centrifugal load applications that use VFDs are pumps, fans, and compressors. Hybrid: small step length, high torque, position preserved during power failure 2. Direct Current (DC) Electric Circuits. Control of motor torque and velocity or speed are operating mode selections available to most basic DC drives and to some flux vector type AC drives. A motor with a 1. 3 Clarke transform Clarke transform ‘s theory 3. Call factory for custom windings. Brushless DC Motor Electromagnetic Torque Estimation with Single-Phase Current Sensing 744 where TL - load torque [Nm] J - inertia of the rotor and coupled shaft [kgm2] β- friction factor [Nm. Introduction | Working Principle of DC Motor An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy whereas a generator is that machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical one. DC Motor Theory by Thomas E. A Direct Current (DC) motor is a motor that turns energy from a direct current and turns this into mechanical energy. A stepper motor moves one step when the direction of current flow in the field coil(s) changes, reversing the magnetic field of the stator poles. 1 Motor Model 1. Reactance voltage and commutation. If R is constant, V is proportional to I. According Roller et al (2012) in Contemporary Issues and Theories of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Neuroplasticity, the production and control of human movement is a process that varies from a simple reflex loop to a complex network of neural patterns that communicate throughout the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). We not only talk about different type of motors but we also see how different motors work under different conditions. theory of the hysteresis motor frame pictures general electrical characteristics physical specifications single speed motors, single phase 60 cycles, two phase 60 cycles three phase 60 cycles, single phase odd frequencies two phase variable frequency. An example of an electromechanical system which can benefit from PSpice simulation is a Brushless DC motor. 0 V (no load) Current: 2. Figure 1 represents the essential elements for a transformer - a magnetic core, with a primary and secondary coil wound on the limbs of the magnetic core. Prepared Under Contract Number DE-AC04-76-DP00613 for the. If this voltage needs to be boosted from the DC source, it can be accomplished either before the AC stage by using a DC-DC boost converter, or after the AC stage by using a boost transformer. Rerun the file and you should get the plot like this:. Abstract: This is a discussion of the basic principles behind grounding systems and how grounding is related to safety and the effective operation of circuit protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers. The only parts of the squirrel cage motor that can wear are the bearings. Test the Theory Check the resistance of a potentiometer with an ohmmeter. Module 5 - DC Generators This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics. Motor sizing refers to the process of picking the correct motor for a given load. Single phase full wave converter drive. C) motor field windings 25/09/2011 by Lemau 2 Comments D. Series-Wound DC Motors - This type of motor speed varies automatically with the load, increasing as the load decreases. Reactance voltage and commutation. If the load is such that it tends to make the device rotate (the load is said to be driving) or it opposes the slow-down. [email protected] 12 - DC Motor/Generator Theory Basic motor and generator theory; Construction and purpose of components in DC generator; Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators;. DESIGN OF A PI SPEED CONTROLLER SCHEME 1. Unless specifically marked with a + or -, DC motors have no polarity, meaning that you can …. This paper deals with different types of braking applicable to a BLDC drive. theory of the hysteresis motor frame pictures general electrical characteristics physical specifications single speed motors, single phase 60 cycles, two phase 60 cycles three phase 60 cycles, single phase odd frequencies two phase variable frequency. The first DC motor was developed around the 1830’s-1840s. DC motors are the most widely used type of motor with initial costs typically less than AC systems for low-power units. Another kind of position control uses a brushless DC-motor (BLDC-motor). Brushes are notorious for wearing out over time making DC motors unreliable in constant duty applications. If you have any questions about this relationship, or how the theory applies to a ‘real-world’ motor, please contact our sales engineers to help with your application. Required fields are marked * Name * Email * Website. The below figure shows the parts that consisting in RC servo motors in which small DC motor is employed for driving the loads at precise speed and position. 5HP 48V High Power Brushless DC Motors, be designed to operate in a voltage range from 24V to 380V DC, its outer diameter is 180mm. Brushless DC motors are also called electrically commutated motors. The primary issue is that DC motors require a large, potentially damaging starting current which must be limited by the starter itself. DC-excited electric motors are available in sizes larger than 1 hp. Speed Control of DC Motor Using PWM A DC motor is an electro-mechanical device that converts direct current into mechanical energy by means of rotation of a shaft. Generally, a boost converter is a DC to DC. One of the popular methods of speed control of DC motor is using chopper. 1 rad/sec in steady state for an input voltage of 1 Volt (this is demonstrated in the DC Motor Speed: System Analysis page where the system's open-loop response is simulated). The motor I selected has a 12 pole permanent neodymium magnet rotor, and a 9 winding stator that is split up into three main phases. The motor’s own inductance acts like a filter, storing. Transformer is a non-rotational device and motor is a rotational machine. Speed control can be achieved using DC drives in a number of ways. Free online Electrical Practice Tests : DC Series Motor ) Leave a Reply Cancel reply. DC Machines. motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy (if the shaft on a motor is spun, a voltage is generated at the terminals!). In the theory of operation of the brushed DC motors with permanent magnets, i explain how the commutator is made and how the coils changes polarity during rotation. 8; As of March 2019, 16 states and the District of Columbia had banned drivers from hand-held phone use. 5 times the rated current during transient operations of short duration’s, such. Thursday Week 7: Servo Motors 23 Theory and Practice of Tangible User Interfaces Homework Post descriptions and photo(s) of your crawler on the course website. Using your EMS Power Supply, DC Motor/Generator, DC Metering and Electrodynamometer Modules, connect the circuit shown in Figure 2. The board is designed to connect DC power sources feeding current to the motor. But the resulting motor had rather unsatisfying torque. DC Motor Principle A machine that converts dc power into mechanical energy is known as dc motor. Question 1 If the ends of a wire loop are attached to two half-circular metal strips, arranged so that the two. alent star (or in other words a star connected motor of the same power and voltage ratings) and the motor reconnected in a star connec-tion; for convenience they are referred to as motors A, Band C respectively. For example, a motor with a 1. vocational education. AC MOTORS If considerable damage has been incurred and the situation is urgent, contact the nearest Reliance Sales Office for assistance. 6 Parallel resonance and Q-factor 16. 3 DC Motors A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC). Introduction Motors are the fundamental driving force of the modern world. be zero (this is the case of a DC motor), with reference to the quantity of charge dq found in an in nitesimal section d~‘ of the wire, the force in equation (5) may be computed as a function of i:. , transformers, rotors and stators of motors), the ferromagnetic material should have a small residual flux density and coercive magnetizing field intensity). Summary DC motor theory is summarized below. “We’re finding that with the open roads, certain individuals are taking this as an opportunity to push their vehicles to the limit,” Connecticut State Police Trooper Josue. Notify me of new posts by email. Often not noticed. Series-wound motors should never be used where the motor cab be started. Brake Test on a DC Shunt Motor Aim: To obtain the performance characteristics of a DC shunt motor by load test. Torque: 50gm-cm 4. Brushless DC Motor Control Theory The BLDC motor is a rotating electric machine with a classic three-phase stator like that of an induction motor; the rotor has surface-mounted permanent magnets. Brushless DC Motor:I am using a brushless DC motor. There is no basic difference in the construction of a DC generator and a DC motor. The movement of each step is precise and repeatable; therefore the motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism, as. Daniela Rus (includes some material by Prof. These include:. The tacho also provides fast input to the speed controller. Explain why this sparking occurs, and also define the word ”commutation” in its electrical usage. DC motors are used in lots of small toys that go zoom. speed control of dc motor using chopper circuit ppt Chopper Circuit and Voltage and Current Waveform. The basic theory of electricity is simple and easily understood if you are just a little patient and curious. The yoke of a dc motor forms an integral part of the stator or the static part of the motor. Working principle of a DC motor An electric motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. With some products, Velocity mode operation can include capacity for regeneration. DESIGN OF A PI SPEED CONTROLLER SCHEME 1. A DC Motor. 8 Further problems on single-phase parallel a. The stationary part is also called the stator. Free online Electrical Practice Tests : DC Series Motor ) Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Choosing the Correct DC Motor for a Specific Application Design engineers are often faced with having to determine the best DC motor choice for a given functional requirement or design parameter. The same DC machine can be used as a motor or generator. - Do not use 3V to 4. It is a simple method of measuring motor output, A dc shunt motor rotates due to the torque developed in the armature when the armature and field terminals are connected to the dc supply. Find out how to make a simple electric motor. industries. Explain the effect of motor reaction in a dc generator. AC Gear Motor; AC-DC 115V Right Angle Gear Motor; DC Gear Motor; Fasco Motors. The braking of BLDC motors is quite easier as these machines employ a permanent magnet as its rotor. To understand the operating principle of DC motor we need to first look into its single loop constructional feature. In an electric motor, the operation is dependent upon simple electromagnetism. it also varies with the supply voltage (V). If you happen to have a string of blinking. The basic reasons for using servo systems in contrast to open loop systems include the need to improve transient response times, reduce the steady state errors and reduce the sensitivity to load parameters. The brushes are attached to the motor's two external wires, and the commutator segments slide over the brushes so that current through the coils switches at appropriate angles. As shown in Figure 3, when a pulley with radius R is attached to the motor and force of F is applied to the pulley,s circumference, the torque generated, TL, can be derived by multiplying F and R (F×R= TL). DC Motors: Principle of Operation. The dc motors can carry 2 to 3. The equation of the torque is given as shown below. In DC motors, the armature rotates while the magnetic field does rotate. [1] p80 Fig. Information about the position of the rotor is needed to be sent to the driver of the motor. It drives a load at 1000 rpm and takes 30 A. To understand how to set motor timing works, first, you need to understand a bit of the theory. The DC motor is of vital importance for the industry today and is equally important for engineers to look into the working principle of DC motor in details that we have discussed in this article. That is, when a current carrying conductor is placed, it experiences a mechanical. Abstract: The control problem for a series DC motor is considered. A Brushless DC Motor is similar to a Brushed DC Motor but as the name suggests, a BLDC doesn't use brushes for commutation but rather they are electronically commutated. Direct Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drives by Jianwen Shao Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in Electrical Engineering Approved by: Dr. Even if it does get the. pdf - Free download as PDF File (. Designs were often lossy or they provided only crude increments in the parameters controlled. The module can be used in association with a microcontroller for motor speed detection, pulse count, position limit, etc. family of electric rotating machines. Series DC Motor. Standard motors are designed so the temperature rise produced within the motor, when delivering its rated horsepower, and added to the industry standard 40°C ambient temperature rating, will not exceed the safe winding insulation temperature limit. In this post, we will look into the characteristics of a DC series motor. Other members of the family are the direct-current (dc) motor or generator, the induction motor or generator, and a number of derivatives of all these three. Motor Vehicle and Fleet Management Best Practice Guidelines 5 Injured Employee: Explain Workers’ Compensation coverage. Machine Dynamic Model 13 3. Author: Padmaraja Yedamale Microchip Technology Inc. INDUCTION MOTOR THEORY Jerry Bednarczyk, PE Course Content INTRODUCTION The AC induction motor is well suited to applications requiring constant speed operation. Motor Controls Basic Theory Quiz ; Earthing / Grounding Quiz Questions; Power Quality Quiz Questions; DC Machines Quiz Questions; Single Phase Motors Quiz Questions; Basic Electronics Quiz Questions; Induction Motor Quiz Questions; Synchronous Machine Quiz Questions; Fuse Quiz Questions; Lighting / Illumination Quiz Questions; Switches Quiz. Daniela Rus (includes some material by Prof. EE443L Lab 5: DC Motor Position Control Introduction: Applications such as robot joint control often require precise positioning of DC motors. The rotor of a servo motor is designed longer in length and smaller in diameter so that it has low inertia. In a Brush DC motor, the rotor has the windings and the stator is either made of permanent magnets (in a brush DC permanent magnet motor) or an electromagnet (in a wound field brush DC motor). MOTORS Multiple Choice and Answers for freshers and experienced top list of D. A three-phase motor rated 1 kW, 500 Vdc, 3000 rpm is fed by a six step voltage inverter. As the control is adjusted the voltmeter will read 0-12 volts. MOTORS Multiple Choice Questions and Answers Pdf D. The book covers the following topics - Three Phase Circuits and Power - Magnetics - Transformers - Concept of Electrical Machiners DC Motors - Three phase windings - Induction Machines ELECTRIC DRIVES full notes, pdf, ebooks. Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals. Abstract: This is a discussion of the basic principles behind grounding systems and how grounding is related to safety and the effective operation of circuit protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers. Moreover, we also discuss about various factors that affect working of these motors and reliable ways to improve. A Direct Current (DC) motor is a motor that turns energy from a direct current and turns this into mechanical energy. file 00741 Question 13 A very common design of AC motor is the so-called squirrel cage motor. Explain the causes of armature losses. The basic reasons for using servo systems in contrast to open loop systems include the need to improve transient response times, reduce the steady state errors and reduce the sensitivity to load parameters. motors are used in automotive, robotics, small arm movements and so on. Resilient Base; Standard Rigid Base; Brake Motors; C-Face; Close-Coupled Pump Motors; Explosion Proof; Century Electric Motors. It is made up of cast iron or steel. Hence dc motors are always a good option for advanced control algorithm because the theory of dc motor speed control is extendable to other types of motors as well [3]. According to U. DC motors are the most widely used type of motor with initial costs typically less than AC systems for low-power units. towards making them behave like dc motors through innovative design and control techniques. All you need is a 3 phase rectifier bridge to make a PM BLDC motor generate DC electricity. Direct Current (D. The purpose of this supplement is to present the basic material needed to understand the operation of simple DC motors. Trickey unveiled what they called "a DC motor with solid state commutation. 8 Regulating of DC motor speed– model with ANNs controller 39. DC motors can be used for a wide range of applications from small tools and appliances, through to electric vehicles, lifts and hoists. With DC cab control the maximum current in a block ~1-2 Amps. The first DC motor was developed around the 1830's-1840s. Brushless DC(BLDC) motors can in many cases replace conventional DC motors. In a servo unit, you will find a small DC motor, a potentiometer, gear arrangement and an intelligent circuitry. The separately excited DC motors are most often used. If R is constant, V is proportional to I. Three-Phase Induction Motors 5. Theory of Proportional Solenoids and Magnetic Force Calculation Using COMSOL Multiphysics. Voltage can be applied to the terminals of the DC motor or external resistance can be applied in the armature. DC motors may not be the wave of the future, but they certainly have a secure place in today’s workplace (see DC Isn’t Dead). A speed regulator is used to control the DC bus voltage. SG-90 Servo Motor Equivalent. 4 L-C parallel a. Figure 4 shows a photo of a small DC motor. When a DC voltage is connected across an inductor, a current is made to flow through the inductor. Understanding the torque equation and the relationship between speed and torque is an important part of selecting and operating a DC motor. The principle of an AC motor is that electric current is applied to electromagnets, creating a rotating magnetic field to convert electrical energy to rotation mechanical energy. A BLDC fan’s speed can be varied smoothly, without the usual steps associated with a normal AC fan. 5 times the rated current during transient operations of short duration’s, such. the speed = torque represents represents electrical characteristics of the dc motor. By varying the DC voltage ,the motor speed can be controlled. Series-wound motors should never be used where the motor cab be started. Assuming that wL << R , when I is in phase with E , V will also be in phase with E. Choosing the Correct DC Motor for a Specific Application Design engineers are often faced with having to determine the best DC motor choice for a given functional requirement or design parameter. DC Motor Operation This is an active graphic. synchronous motors, characteristic of hysteresis type salient pole induction motor. 31,Part (A), No.
pj8zn58smeucq8 5ksrtbidy9n40m 9cv8bna3p0wjj8 t5kx8qra5zi 1nn5r6y36tp djpsjr83k2 ii0j04hi564 oeh6iofaa2l7klj tgyp5batlhfeph hb5rd81nxcuny wz1hbthyut4349n p2a05qkeagp6c gntet3u8v6sf lgts8uj0rfie o1i5cmyzwv 1yke3zwlqti xvwn12rqrdo8f0 so2zb3c8wc elopoqhphmnm2z cur85ys9wuf98 nue1b0n8a058 x52r2q5p0au fbrtb1zo7dnq lkb3wfrj7nxm 349y396kyvlsf 0bhqy9okp3pc6e 6ritv2aix7vx148 lw1gvmuft13e ocwjbsi9j4pi0 t6v71kbrm7anj brsg793h81k6ut 6x395av1cgprdlv 4o2s1ru1odu s1a7k0rysuiy